Pubblicazione scientifica Journal of Translational Science

Human microbiome: What’s new in scalp diseases

Rinaldi F 1,2*, Pinto D 1,2, Marzani B1,2, Rucco M1, Giuliani G2 and Sorbellini S 1,2

1 International Hair Research Foundation (IHRF), Milan, Italy
2 Human Advanced Microbiome Project-HMAP, Milan, Italy



The human body is colonized by 100 trillion of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, viruses and very tiny eukaryotes [1]. In particular, the total number of bacteria in a reference man is reported to be around 3.8·1013. The total number of fungal cells, the so-called ‘mycobiome’ is orders of magnitude smaller than that of bacterial cells [2]. Together with other less abundant (<0.1%) microorganisms, fungi are component of the rare biosphere [3,4] which significantly impact human health protection from pathogens [5]. The definition of the human microbiome is accompanied by
terminology confusion since the term “microbiota” and “microbiome” are often used interchangeably. According to a correct definition, the term “microbiota” has to be referred to the microbial community associated with humans and the term “microbiome” both to microbes and the genes they share with humans. Early study on human microbiome started in the 1680s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [6,7] highlighting for the first time the profound differences in the microbial community at different body sites. Once these difference became obvious severals large-scale
microbiome projects have been launched all around the world [8-10] in order to explain the reasons behind microbial diversity and factor affecting it by mean of both culture-dependent and independent methods. Advances in molecular and genetic techniques as well growing
interest within the field resulted in an increase of the number of scientific publications on the topic, especially after the so-called “Microbiome Boom” between 2012 and 2013s (Figure 1).
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